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cities
2006
Prof. Frank Hadley Collins, Dir., Cntr. for Global Health and Infectious Diseases, Univ. of Notre Dame

This 2006 photograph depicted a female Aedes aegypti mosquito while she was in the process of acquiring a blood meal from her human host, who in this instance, was actually the biomedical photographer, James Gathany, here at the Centers for Disease Control.  You?ll note the feeding apparatus consisting of a sharp, ?fascicle?, which while not feeding, is covered in a soft, pliant sheath called the "labellum?, which is seen here retracted, as the sharp ?stylets? contained within pierced the host's skin surface, as the insect obtained its blood meal. The fascicle is composed of a pair of needle-sharp stylets. The larger of the two stylets, known as the "labrum", when viewed in cross-section takes on the shape of an inverted "V", and acts as a gutter, which directs the ingested host blood towards the insect's mouth. This female?s abdomen had become distended due to the blood meal she was ingesting, imparting the red coloration to her translucent abdominal exoskeleton.

DF and DHF are primarily diseases of tropical and sub-tropical areas, and the four different dengue serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4), are maintained in a cycle that involves humans and the Aedes mosquito. However, Aedes aegypti, a domestic, day-biting mosquito that prefers to feed on humans, is the most common Aedes species. Infections produce a spectrum of clinical illness ranging from a nonspecific viral syndrome to severe and fatal hemorrhagic disease. Important risk factors for DHF include the strain of the infecting virus, as well as the age, and especially the prior dengue infection history of the patient.

Zika is carried by mosquitoes that reproduce in standing water, but in some cities that water can be hard to eliminate.

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The Global Rundown Uruguay is increasing and diversifying its renewable energy sources, making the country’s power supplies less susceptible to drought. Floods in Tamil Nadu shut down an oil refinery and forced thousands of people to evacuate. El Nino is bringing a boon of tuna to Kiribati, and while it could relieve California’s drought to […]

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The Global Rundown Farmers in Mexico’s Chihuahua state are seeing their groundwater dry up, and some are moving out of the area. South Africa’s abandoned gold mines pose a serious health threat to nearby communities and waterways. Residents of a town in Colombia are suing the government over long-term water contamination. A new study found […]

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With city and state carbon reduction limits in place, Oakland set out to meet them. The city audited its buildings, analyzed its fleet of vehicles, and reviewed its solid waste infrastructure with the clear goal of being more efficient.

Quality of life and economy thrives with greater care for water, energy, air, and waste.

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Over the last quarter century, and with quickening resolve during the last decade, Oakland underwent a city makeover.  Ardently supported by residents and business executives, the city steadily injected much more ecologically sensitive operating practices into its operating systems – from waste management to transit, energy efficient building codes to carbon-limiting port and electrical utility operations. Downtown open spaces now are alive with business and civic energy.

Quality of life and economy thrives with greater care for water, energy, air, and waste.

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https://www.flickr.com/photos/northcharleston/21352738444/ The aftermath of the flooding in North Charleston, South Carolina caused by over 15 inches of rainfall resulting from Hurricane Joaquin.

Lawsuit requires EPA to address one of the largest water pollution sources in the country.

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The Global Rundown Below-normal monsoon rains this summer left India in a drought for the second year in a row. Zambia’s former vice president blamed poor water management for the country’s hydropower troubles. A new report from an international medical organization detailed the high costs of chemicals in the environment. Forecasters warned that heavy rains […]

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The Global Rundown Large cities across the United States face compounding flood threats under climate change, a study found, while U.S. companies pledged to fight climate change by reducing emissions and water use. Three more cities are rationing water in Puerto Rico, and half of the sockeye salmon spawning in the Columbia River are dying […]

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The Global Rundown Australia released plans to invest in water infrastructure, the Philippines called for bids to build a new dam to supply water to Manila, and Peru declared a state of emergency in preparation for an El Nino. Cities in California are raising water rates to replace revenue lost to conservation efforts. Farming communities […]

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Sao-Paulo’s-Water-Waiting-Game

Desire to protect the poor left Brazil’s driest city few options other than new pipes and prayers for rain.

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Water Supply A new program will allow residents of Angola’s capital, Luanda, to use their mobile phones to locate community water taps that sell water much cheaper than private vendors, Bloomberg News reported. The city is the fastest growing in sub-Saharan Africa, but many of its residents lack access to a piped water supply within […]

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Climate Areas of some coastal cities in the United States could become unusable in the next 30 years due to sea level rise and routine floods, Reuters reported, citing a new study from the Union of Concerned Scientists. Washington, D.C., for example, could have as many as 388 tidal floods each year by 2045. Researchers […]

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Africa A national plan to increase Morocco’s water resources by 5 billion cubic meters by 2030 will cost the country $US 27 billion, a price it is hoping to cover primarily with investments from the private sector, Bloomberg News reported. The investment is designed to maintain current per capita water availability as the country’s population […]

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Only 25 percent of people in South Asia have access to piped water supplies and more than a quarter lack access to electricity due to large gaps in infrastructure, according to the World Bank, Reuters reported. The Bank has estimated that the region needs $US 2.5 trillion in investment by 2020 to provide necessary services […]

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Mining Mining activities for graphite, a material used in several electric car batteries popular in the United States, are leading to polluted rain and wastewater discharges in China, Bloomberg News reported. The pollution has prompted China to suspend operations and many of its graphite mines, even while world demand for the mineral is growing. A […]

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Analyzing two reports about future water stress in the United States, the Huffington Post created a list of the top 11 cities that could face water shortages due to factors like population growth, increasing water demand from industries, and climate change. Los Angeles, which imports much of its fresh water, tops the list. Water Pollution […]

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For Water, Cities Look to Farms Conserving water on farms is the key to securing water for cities that face recurring shortages, according to a new study published in the journal Water Policy, National Geographic reported. The growth of both irrigated agriculture and cities in water-scarce regions has fueled these shortages, necessitating working relationships between […]

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Scientists are beginning to study the ecological function of cities, tracking and measuring the flow of atmospheric gases, water, carbon, and pollutants through the urban ecosystem, Nature reported. The research could be essential for cutting greenhouse gas emissions and creating sustainable cities. Water Levels Global sea level rise is outpacing United Nations projections by 60 […]

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An outbreak of Hepatitis E in South Sudan refugee camps has killed 26 people and infected more than 1,000, according to the United Nations News Centre. The virus is spread through contaminated food and water, and the problem could worsen with the rainy season and an influx of more refugees. China’s agriculture minister warned today […]

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Electricity-producing coal, nuclear, and natural gas plants account for the fastest-growing use of fresh water in the United States, according to a report from Oregon-based River Network, Bloomberg News reported. The study found that electricity produced by hydropower dams has the largest water footprint. The amount of Arctic sea ice is at a record low […]

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