Experts Name the Top 19 Solutions to the Global Freshwater Crisis

This week we continue counting down the 19 best solutions to the global freshwater crisis captured by a GlobeScan and SustainAbility poll of more than 1200 leading international experts in 80 countries. Here’s the final list.

Imperial Valley, California. August, 2009
Photo by Brent Stirton/Reportage by Getty Images for Circle of Blue
Imperial Valley, California 2009: Runoff agricultural waste water contaminated with a high saline and fertilizer content on its way to be dumped in the Salton Sea.

Virtually every industry in the world anticipates sweeping systemic transformation over the next decade in their strategic planning, production practices, and business models, according to the Sustainability Survey Poll on Water. The global opinion poll, which released a survey of more than 1,200 sustainability experts in March, concludes that water shortages will shift public perception of the value of water, prompting governments and companies to view clean water not as a commodity to exploit but as a precious resource.

Conducted by GlobeScan, an international public and stakeholder opinion research firm, and SustainAbility, a think tank and business strategy consultancy, the poll asked, “What are the technologies or changes in behavior which show the most promise for addressing water shortages over the next 10 years?” THE experts’ responses generated 19 consensus solutions.

Jeff Erikson, senior vice president at SustainAbility, told Circle of Blue that the decisions executives make to respond to freshwater scarcity will penetrate almost every aspect of their business operations. The varied solutions reveaedl the complexity of coping with water scarcity. Population growth, urban development, farm production and climate change are increasing competition for fresh water and producing shortages. Here’s a look at the first 10 areas where experts feel needed solutions will come.

Educate to change consumption and lifestyles
In the end, changing the face of this crisis involves education to motivate new behaviors. Coping with the coming era of water scarcity will require major overhaul of all forms of consumption, from individual use to the supply chains of major corporations, like GE. Some regions led by India, Australia and the Southwest U.S., are already facing the freshwater crisis. The most critical task is making sure the problem is much better understood worldwide.


Invent new water conservation technologies
In areas where aquifers are drying up and rainwater is increasingly unpredictable, innovation is needed. But as we attempt to cope with freshwater scarcity and develop conservation technologies, energy consumption is an important consideration.


Recycle wastewater
In March, World Water Day panelists urged a new mindset for wastewater treatment. Some countries, like Singapore, are trying to recycle to cut water imports and become more self-sufficient. The rich East Asian republic is a leader in developing advanced technology that cleanses wastewater for other uses, including drinking.


Improve irrigation and agricultural practices
Some 70 percent of the world’s freshwater is used for agriculture. Improving irrigation can help close supply and demand gaps. In certain cases profligate irrigation practices meant for an earlier era has weakened the ability of farmers to provide food and fiber to a growing world. Examples include the Murray-Darling basin in Australia, Central Asia’s Aral Sea, and the American Southwest. Although new technology has become an appealing solution, global water experts like Peter Gleick note that in some cases, such as the agricultural systems in California, success stories can happen by improving what’s already in place.


Appropriately price water
Water pricing and rights go hand in hand, with consumers questioning the benefit of higher prices. According to experts from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), an international economic forum of 31 of the world’s richest countries, raising prices will help lower waste and pollution. But Circle of Blue’s May investigation into water pricing systems in major U.S. cities, show current utility pricing systems are obsolete, send the wrong signals, and need reform.


Develop energy efficient desalination plants
To date, desalination has been an energy-intensive solution to water scarcity. Typically the Middle East has capitalized on its large energy reserves to build desalination plants. But Saudi Arabia could be fostering a new kind of desalination with its recent announcement to use solar-powered plants.

Britain has taken a different approach with small-scale facilities for agriculture. But these innovations bring to light another needed resource—the capital for technological experimentation.


Improve water catchment and harvesting
Water catchment systems are essential for areas with no other reliable water sources. Pakistan and India—two countries that contend with some of the worst effects of climate change—are overhauling rainwater harvesting systems. These efforts provide independent control of water resources.


Look to community-based governance and partnerships
Community organizations elevate the experiences of those whose voices merit more influence. In April, for instance, indigenous groups met at the alternative climate change conference in Bolivia, a gathering meant to foster international partnerships among underrepresented groups. Ensuring more effective governance at the grassroots-level gives communities stature, and can lead to effective policy changes on a national scale.


Develop and enact better policies and regulations
As water scarcity complicates food security and pollution, governments need to redefine their role. The U.S. government is considering expanding the Clean Water Act to ensure more protections. In Russia, meanwhile, Prime Minister Vladimir Putin has approved waste discharges in Lake Baikal, one of the world’s largest bodies of freshwater. Regardless of what path elected leaders take–the Circle of Blue/GlobeScan WaterViews survey indicates they are considering multiple approaches–the survey also found that most people say it is up to the government to ensure communities have access to clean water.


Holistically manage ecosystems
Simply put, holistic management applies to a practical, common-sense approach to overseeing natural resources that takes into account economic, cultural, and ecological goals. In essence, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, and each facet is related to and influences the others. Good examples of holistic management are communities that operate sewage treatment plants while pursuing partnerships with clean energy producers to use wastewater to fertilize algae and other biofuel crops. The crops, in turn, soak up nutrients and purify wastewater, significantly reducing pumping and treatment costs.


Improve distribution infrastructure
Poor infrastructure is devastating to health and the economy. It wastes resources, adds costs, diminishes the quality of life, and allows preventable water-borne diseases to spread among vulnerable populations, especially children. The problem is not confined to the developing world. Pipes burst on a regular basis in the U.S., prompting boil alerts. Sewage treatment systems regularly overflow and malfunction, causing beach closures.


Shrink corporate water footprints
Industrial water use accounts for approximately 22 percent of global consumption. The corporate footprint includes water that is directly and indirectly consumed when goods are produced. ?As sustainable manufacturing becomes more important, given the increasing severity of water scarcity, Peter Gleick and other experts question the costs of one industry sector in particular: bottled water.


Build international frameworks and institutional cooperation
Binding international accords for natural resource issues are hard to achieve. The 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen is evidence of that point. And that’s not just because the freshwater crisis, arguably the most visible and dire of the climate change risks, was ignored. Regional agreements regarding transboundary or shared water bodies such as the Great Lakes Compact in the U.S., and Nile River basin agreement in Africa are just as difficult to ratify. But policymakers and advocates need to keep trying. Humanitarian-oriented treaties, such as the U.N.’s drinking water Millennium Development Goals, indicate that comprehensive global strategies are possible.


Address pollution
Measuring and monitoring water quality is essential to human health and biodiversity. This monumental issue rears its head in many forms and can be addressed in just as many ways, whether it’s David de Rothschild’s eco-adventure in a plastic ship or Joe Berlinger’s documentary on oil contaminating the Ecuadorian Amazon. While securing the quality of drinking water and at the local level, it’s essential to build international bridges to solutions.


Public common resources / equitable access
One of the key United Nations’
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is ensuring access to drinking water. While the steps to achieve this goal are debated, the thesis that water is a basic right comes into play. As countries such as Chile attempt to reform water rights, U.S. politicians are considering how access rights translate into federal protection of Lake Michigan, one of the world’s largest reserves of freshwater.


R&D / Innovation
Access to water in a water-scarce world will become a much higher priority in business decisions. Communities are likely to pursue public-private partnerships that draw on the innovative capacities of companies. One example— cities that operate sewage treatment plants are likely to pursue partnerships with clean energy producers to fertilize algae and other biofuel crops with wastewater.


Water projects in developing countries / transfer of technology
Climate change and water scarcity are producing the most dramatic consequences in developing regions, such as northwest India and Sub-Saharan Africa. One proposed solution is to transfer water conservation technologies to these dry areas. Doing so is tricky because economies are weak and there are gaps in skills that often compel government and business authorities to impose these changes on local citizens.


Climate change mitigation
Climate change and water scarcity go hand-in-hand to cause some of the biggest contemporary challenges to the human race. These issues have a reciprocal relationship, identified by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), in which, “water management policies and measures can have an influence on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.” As renewable energy options are pursued, the water consumption of these mitigation tactics must be considered in producing alternatives ranging from bio-energy crops to hydropower and solar power plants.


Population growth control
Because of the accelerating growth in global population, parts of the world could see a supply-demand gap of up to 65 percent in water resources by 2030. Currently, more than one billion people don’t have access to clean water. And with 70 percent of the world’s freshwater used for agriculture, water’s critical role in food production must be considered as climate and resource conditions change.


29 Comments
  1. This looks like it may turn into a laundry list of hopes. Is there any mechanism to reconcile these ideas? In a market, they would compete. Here?

  2. [...] Jeff Erikson, senior vice president at SustainAbility, told Circle of Blue that the decisions executives make to respond to freshwater scarcity will penetrate almost every aspect of their business operations. The varied solutions reveaedl the complexity of coping with water scarcity. Population growth, urban development, farm production and climate change are increasing competition for fresh water and producing shortages. Here’s a look at the first five areas where experts feel needed solutions will come. Public common resources / equitable access One of the key United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is ensuring access to drinking water. While the steps to achieve this goal are debated, the thesis that water is a basic right comes into play. As countries such as Chile attempt to reform water rights, U.S. politicians are considering how access rights translate into federal protection of Lake Michigan, one of the world’s largest reserves of freshwater. R&D / Innovation Access to water in a water-scarce world will become a much higher priority in business decisions. Communities are likely to pursue public-private partnerships that draw on the innovative capacities of companies. One example— cities that operate sewage treatment plants are likely to pursue partnerships with clean energy producers to fertilize algae and other biofuel crops with wastewater. Water projects in developing countries / transfer of technology Climate change and water scarcity are producing the most dramatic consequences in developing regions, such as northwest India and Sub-Saharan Africa. One proposed solution is to transfer water conservation technologies to these dry areas. Doing so is tricky because economies are weak and there are gaps in skills that often compel government and business authorities to impose these changes on local citizens. Climate change mitigation Climate change and water scarcity go hand-in-hand to cause some of the biggest contemporary challenges to the human race. These issues have a reciprocal relationship, identified by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), in which, “water management policies and measures can have an influence on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.” As renewable energy options are pursued, the water consumption of these mitigation tactics must be considered in producing alternatives ranging from bio-energy crops to hydropower and solar power plants. Population growth control Because of the accelerating growth in global population, parts of the world could see a supply-demand gap of up to 65 percent in water resources by 2030. Currently, more than one billion people don’t have access to clean water. And with 70 percent of the world’s freshwater used for agriculture, water’s critical role in food production must be considered as climate and resource conditions change. source:  http://www.circleofblue.org/waternews/2010/world/experts-name-the-top-19-solutions-to-the-… [...]

  3. Ditto Dave.

    I hope ‘water market’ is solutions ’1′ to ’14′.

    99% of the problems are caused by the fact that governments everywhere are giving water away for free.

    This is such typical behaviour, it makes me want to vomit:
    http://thomasthethinkengine.wordpress.com/2010/04/13/ttte-meets-contra-costa-water-a-lesson-in-perverse-incentives/

  4. I agree with David. The longer the list, the harder will be prioritization and the least will be picked. I think, most of the issues and their theoritical solutions are known and debated almost everywhere. The question comes as to who will do what, when and at what cost.

  5. Would it be possible to send me your outlines of solutions 1 – 9? I cant find them anywhere!

  6. Catherine: Stay tuned! We are posting these solutions in installments over a period of 4 weeks. Look for 9-5 on Tuesday, May 25 and 4-1 on Tuesday, June 1. And we are also looking for solutions from our readers as well! Check out our survey: http://www.surveygizmo.com/s3/262320/Circle-of-Blue-WaterNews-Survey

  7. [...] Experts Name the Top 19 Solutions to the Global Freshwater Crisis: A new study conducted by the international research firm GlobeScan has collected the responses of a wide range of water experts to find some answers to the pressing issues of the fresh water crisis. [...]

  8. GGGRRRROOOOOAAAAAAAAAANNNNNNNN!!!!!!!!!

    Education is number one!?!?

    That is such a joke.

    Education campaigns are so feeble. Peoples’ behaviour will not change until the price goes up.

    This list is pathetic. Who ever these clowns are, they don’t deserve their business cards.

  9. As one American….I find that the lack of concern, publicity and education goes with out say…It is very pathetic. As long as Large Companies such as Nestle are allowed to consume STEAL water at a rate of 312,000 gallons per day and sell at 300% profit with no regulatory from EPA or FDA …the shortage and war for water will continue….The water that is found in EVERY plastic bottle is a double edge sword. The plastic containers poison our Oceans (to the size of texas so far) and the water sold has no standards and no one over seeing what is being sold or extracted. More importantly the long life of extracting is the result of SINK HOLES and Big Money Mongrals to steal, sell with no concern as to how this affects our world. Dams are built to suit the purpose and need of the Companies interested in harvesting large wealth and not good health…I believe that in the wake of the Gulf disaster ….we will have a hard time keeping it in the headlines or should I say …Getting the truth of how this is something we will never be able to correct or undo…And it will slowly assist us in our own slow worldwide GENOCIDE. I believe that to stand for what is right, get up and fight instead of sitting down to type would be the first step in taking back our most needed resource….

  10. Water is a right, not a privilege. Everyone should have access to fresh drinking water.

    This list is a good start, but it needs serious corrections. Definitely needs shortening.

    Water education – this should go without saying. The main problem though is not regular people, it is corporations. GREED is a problem. There needs to be some sort of control mechanism to prevent corporations from:
    1) using public water for profit, and
    2) polluting public water supply.
    Right now, as current BP disaster in Gulf of Mexico shows, large international corporations are not accountable.

    I will address two last points. “Climate change” they way you use it is propaganda. There’s always a climate change, there has never been a time on our planet when there was no climate change. So using this term as a scary monster is nothing but fear mongering.

    And last, but not least, population growth control is GENOCIDE as somebody mentioned before. Everywhere else on the planet species self-control its population. It is a built-in mechanism, don’t tell us that humans come without it. It is clear that population control in USA turned out to be equal to “white population control” – just see demographics of newborns among whites, blacks (enough with political correctness already) and hispanics between 1950th and now.

  11. [...] [Circle of Blue WaterNews] This entry was posted in Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink. ← Japanese scientists invent “elastic water” [...]

  12. [...] most promise for addressing water shortages over the next 10 years?”. The result is a list of 18 “best solutions to the global freshwater crisis”. Education is ranked as the first solution to this global [...]

  13. Please visit this website http://www.drinkable-air.com for the real worldwide solution to our water bankruptcy. No one should have to go without 99.99% pure drinking water.The solution is simple and has been in front of our eyes for over 50 years, but water wasn’t seen as a problem until the 21st century. It’s not a magical, mystical solution and doesn’t involve us paying more for it or rationing it, it’s all around us.

  14. [...] role in food production must be considered as climate and resource conditions change. Source: Circle of Blue The above solutions are all logical; even though some of the individual solutions are nothing new, [...]

  15. [...] the full article here. var addthis_pub="eiwebteam"; Leave a comment Follow us on Facebook or [...]

  16. [...] Circle of Blue August 31st, 2010 | Tags: agricultural practices, Agriculture, American Southwest, aquifers, Aral [...]

  17. [...] 9. Develop and enact better policies and regulations As water scarcity complicates food security and pollution, governments need to redefine their role. The U.S. government is considering expanding the Clean Water Act to ensure more protections. In Russia, meanwhile, Prime Minister Vladimir Putin has approved waste discharges in Lake Baikal, one of the world’s largest bodies of freshwater. Regardless of what path elected leaders take–the Circle of Blue/GlobeScan WaterViews survey indicates they are considering multiple approaches–the survey also found that most people say it is up to the government to ensure communities have access to clean water. 10. Holistically manage ecosystems Simply put, holistic management applies to a practical, common-sense approach to overseeing natural resources that takes into account economic, cultural, and ecological goals. In essence, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, and each facet is related to and influences the others. Good examples of holistic management are communities that operate sewage treatment plants while pursuing partnerships with clean energy producers to use wastewater to fertilize algae and other biofuel crops. The crops, in turn, soak up nutrients and purify wastewater, significantly reducing pumping and treatment costs. 11. Improve distribution infrastructure Poor infrastructure is devastating to health and the economy. It wastes resources, adds costs, diminishes the quality of life, and allows preventable water-borne diseases to spread among vulnerable populations, especially children. The problem is not confined to the developing world. Pipes burst on a regular basis in the U.S., prompting boil alerts. Sewage treatment systems regularly overflow and malfunction, causing beach closures. 12. Shrink corporate water footprints Industrial water use accounts for approximately 22 percent of global consumption. The corporate footprint includes water that is directly and indirectly consumed when goods are produced. ?As sustainable manufacturing becomes more important, given the increasing severity of water scarcity, Peter Gleick and other experts question the costs of one industry sector in particular: bottled water. 13. Build international frameworks and institutional cooperation Binding international accords for natural resource issues are hard to achieve. The 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen is evidence of that point. And that’s not just because the freshwater crisis, arguably the most visible and dire of the climate change risks, was ignored. Regional agreements regarding transboundary or shared water bodies such as the Great Lakes Compact in the U.S., and Nile River basin agreement in Africa are just as difficult to ratify. But policymakers and advocates need to keep trying. Humanitarian-oriented treaties, such as the U.N.’s drinking water Millennium Development Goals, indicate that comprehensive global strategies are possible. 14. Address pollution Measuring and monitoring water quality is essential to human health and biodiversity. This monumental issue rears its head in many forms and can be addressed in just as many ways, whether it’s David de Rothschild’s eco-adventure in a plastic ship or Joe Berlinger’s documentary on oil contaminating the Ecuadorian Amazon. While securing the quality of drinking water and at the local level, it’s essential to build international bridges to solutions. 15. Public common resources / equitable access One of the key United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is ensuring access to drinking water. While the steps to achieve this goal are debated, the thesis that water is a basic right comes into play. As countries such as Chile attempt to reform water rights, U.S. politicians are considering how access rights translate into federal protection of Lake Michigan, one of the world’s largest reserves of freshwater. 16. R&D / Innovation Access to water in a water-scarce world will become a much higher priority in business decisions. Communities are likely to pursue public-private partnerships that draw on the innovative capacities of companies. One example— cities that operate sewage treatment plants are likely to pursue partnerships with clean energy producers to fertilize algae and other biofuel crops with wastewater. 17. Water projects in developing countries / transfer of technology Climate change and water scarcity are producing the most dramatic consequences in developing regions, such as northwest India and Sub-Saharan Africa. One proposed solution is to transfer water conservation technologies to these dry areas. Doing so is tricky because economies are weak and there are gaps in skills that often compel government and business authorities to impose these changes on local citizens. 18. Climate change mitigation Climate change and water scarcity go hand-in-hand to cause some of the biggest contemporary challenges to the human race. These issues have a reciprocal relationship, identified by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), in which, “water management policies and measures can have an influence on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.” As renewable energy options are pursued, the water consumption of these mitigation tactics must be considered in producing alternatives ranging from bio-energy crops to hydropower and solar power plants. 19. Population growth control Because of the accelerating growth in global population, parts of the world could see a supply-demand gap of up to 65 percent in water resources by 2030. Currently, more than one billion people don’t have access to clean water. And with 70 percent of the world’s freshwater used for agriculture, water’s critical role in food production must be considered as climate and resource conditions change. Source: Circle of blue [...]

  18. Overpopulation is the root of most of the world’s problems now – and all of the world’s problems in the future. How can we stop it? Any ideas out there?

  19. It was just nice information sharing and its helpful for everyone.

  20. With all of the talk on Sustainable Water Use I designed and built a Smart Greywater System, yet everywhere I go I am told Interested and find it has been nothing but talk on the other end. So here is what I have to offer.
    At this time I would like to introduce myself. My name is Francesco Dorigo and I have a Smart Greywater Recycling System I have invented and would like the opportunity to set up a meeting with you to discuss implementing its installation and use in San Diego County. I am also a Property Owner. (Personal and rentals)
    With the rising cost of water I took a Good Hard Look for alternative approaches, in order to contain costs and keep my properties lush and green.
    I have done extensive research for water-recycling products and found them not only unreliable, but most definitely not cost effective.
    With this being said, I have embarked on a grey-water recycling enterprise. As a consciences Businessman, I have researched and developed a full scale Business Plan. Much to my surprise, I found the need of water to be of vital importance for our area. Water is a precious commodity, and all of our neighbors (Northern California, Colorado, Nevada, Arizona and our own Agriculture) do not want to part with any more from their present quotas. The conclusion to this scenario is: We cannot make more water, but we can Re-Use It!
    I have engineered and patented an Appliance that recycles grey-water for the home use. A prototype is in place and performing beautifully. This Appliance filters and sanitizes water from: tubs, showers and washing machines and feeds the toilets and the remainder irrigates the lawns (subsurface). This will reduce water usage in a home by 30% to 60%, depending on factors such as: number of people, yard size, and geographical area and of course resident’s habits.
    This new Enterprise is a job creator. Plans are conservatively predicting over 1,000 new jobs for the area in the next three years, and over 10,000 new jobs nationwide in the next five years. (Manufacturing, plumbing, landscaping, Sales & Marketing)
    The Success of my Enterprise will help meet and probably exceed the water restriction (cutbacks) mandated by the State. In view of this effort on my part, I am asking your cooperation to allow grey-water re-use in your City, facilitate permits and minimize fees for installations.
    This is a unique opportunity that will bring benefits to all parties committed to the cause.
    . We will save water
    . Financial Savings to Homeowners
    . Less Taxing to the Environment
    . Less burden on infrastructures (water delivery, sewers, black-water processing).
    . City water allotments will be better able to serve Residents and in the near future Schools
    . Minimize pollution, soap/detergent bio-degrade into fertilizer (nitrates, phosphates).
    . Bring much needed new job opportunities to the area, NB: not in Chin
    I would be delighted to meet/speak with you and further reveal my plan. Your feedback would be greatly appreciated. Your support is needed in order for the opportunity to help make this happen in YOUR Community!

    Respectfully,
    Francesco Dorigo
    President/Founder
    BS in Physics and Electronic Engineering at CSUN
    Advanced Grey-Water Recycling Systems
    1205 Activity Dr.
    Vista, CA 92081
    760-842-7042
    http://www.agwrs.com
    dfrancesco@agwrs.com

  21. [...] Circle of Blue: Experts Name the Top 19 Solutions to the Global Freshwater Crisis [...]

  22. [...] Circle of Blue: Experts Name the Top 19 Solutions to the Global Freshwater Crisis [...]

  23. Your list of future solutions should include an investigation of waterbag technology.

    A demonstration of waterbag technology has received written support from Peter Gleick and David Zetland, as well as from California water agencies. To see a video of television news coverage of a demonstration of waterbag technology see:
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4TEJp6UZaDI. More information can be found in a Wikipedia article at: http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flexible_barge and on the website: http://www.waterbag.com. The economics of waterbag technology are easy to calculate. The technology is easy to demonstrate. It is the politics of waterbag technology that is the most difficult issue to address. In the end economics will control.

    What is your response?

  24. Water-from-air (WFA) technologies ( mentioned also in comment by John; July 4, 2010) have the potential to be part of at least nine of the nineteen solutions, especially in subtropical and tropical regions. The water-from-air resource, in terms of water vapour density, ranges from 4 grams of water vapour per cubic metre of moist air in Las Vegas to 21 grams per cubic metre in Djibouti. A lot of information about the water-from-air resource (including quantitative analyses for many locations) is available at http://www.atmoswater.com.

    Machines, known as “atmospheric water generators” (AWGs) are already commercially available from several companies. AWGs of various sizes can produce potable water (meeting WHO drinking water guidelines) typically at rates of 20 L per day to several thousand litres per day.

    The nine solutions which, in my opinion, relate to water-from-air technologies are:—

    Solution 5: “Appropriately price water” – for example, although the amortized cost of a unit volume of water produced by an AWG seems high compared its main competitor, desalinated water, the latter does not account for environmental damage caused by brine production and disposal. There are other examples of where the public water supply is subsidized and is not indicative of the actual cost per unit volume. In regions of liquid water scarcity or unavailability, WFA has an advantage by accessing the water vapour in the air as its resource—price becomes lower in priority if the water is needed badly enough in such a region.

    Solution 6: “Develop energy efficient desalination plants” – WFA, like desalination, has the challenge of a relatively high energy cost per unit volume of product water. This is well-known in the WFA industry and is the subject of research & development. Less well known is the challenge of life cycle assessment (LCA) which must become a research priority followed by action in the form of better designs that have much lower “carbon footprints”. Capital for technological experimentation is needed urgently by the WFA industry.

    Solution 7: “Improve water catchment and harvesting” – WFA is a method of bypassing natural processes (without harm) to take the place of rainfall into a catchment thereby facilitating independent control of a water resource.

    Solution 8: “Look to community-based governance and partnerships” – WFA, by its distributed nature, able to access its water resource “anywhere” is amenable to community-scale projects.

    Solution 11: “Improve distribution infrastucture” – WFA systems can be introduced into communities within a region in a modular fashion to improve water distribution incrementally, as funds allow, without the huge capital costs often associated with water distribution infrastructure.

    Solution 15: “Public common resource / equitable access” – WFA taps into the common resource of water vapour in the atmosphere which is accessible in tropical and subtropical latitudes (at or near sea level) at virtually any place with an AWG without restriction (as long as electrical power is available).

    Solution 16: “R&D / Innovation” – see notes for Solution 6; Innovation is also needed in product water handling and storage technology to reduce operating and maintenance costs for WFA systems.

    Solution 17: “Water projects in developing countries / transfer of technology” – because WFA systems perform best in the subtropical and tropical regions where developing countries are located, the industry needs to devote time and resources to developing and improving technology transfer mechanisms.

    Solution 19: “Population growth control” – WFA addresses directly the supply-demand gap.

  25. I AM A GOLF COURSE SUPERENDINDENT FOR OVER 20 YEARS. I AM AN EXPERT IN GROWING TURF WITH BRACKISH AND EFFULUENT WATER. I HAVE DONE SOME GROUND WATER LEACHING TEST USING LYSIMETERS. WE TESTED FOR NITRATE AND SALTS. THE COURSE WAS DESIGN TO HOLD ALL THE RAIN WATER FROM NEW DEVELOPEMENT SURROUNDINGS. THE COURSE WAS ALSO INSTALLED INJECTION WELLS TO INJECT THE FRESH WATER BACK INTO THE AQUAFIER IN HAWAII. ON MY FINDINGS AT 6 FEET BELOW THE TURF I WAS AMAZED. I HAD NOT SPOKEN OF MY FINDING AS FOR I WAS CONCERN TO GROW TURF. I WENT ON TO OTHER COURSE NEAR BY USING SEWER TREATED WATER. I ALSO DID MY TESTING AND AT THAT TIME NOBODY TOOK SAMPLES BUT MYSELF. I ALSO FOUND TEST RESULTS TO BE AMZAING GREAT. I THEN WENT TO A CAYE IN WESTERN CARRIBEAN AND WATER THE COURSE USING SALT WATER MIX WITH BRACKISH WATER. I CREATED A FORMULA TO GROW TURF WITH OUT SALT BURN THE TURF. AND I THEN HAVENT RETURN TO THE GOLF INDUSTRY. I HAVE TESTING FACTS ON HOW TO CLEAN AND WAYS TO PROTECT WATER RESOURCES. I NEED HELP TO GETTING GRANTS TO TEST MY FACTS ON HOW TO CLEAN UP CONTAIMENATED WASTE WATER AND WATER HIGH IN SALTS. I KNOW FOR FACT THIS WILL WORK AND I DID NOT SAY A WORD UNTIL NOW. I WOULD LIKE TO EXPLAIN ON HOW AND WHY AND WHAT RESULTS YOU WILL HAVE. I AM THAT SERIOUS ABOUT MY FACTS. I AM LOOKING FOR A SMALL AREA OF LAND TO TEST MY METHOD OF CLEANING WATER. IT WILL NOT TAKE MILLIONS OF DOLLARS TO SET UP AND TEST. IT WILL HELP OTHER COUNTRIES TO HAVE CLEAN WATER. I NEED TO TEST A METHOD , I THOUGHT IT OUT FOR YEARS. HOPE YOU ALL CAN HELP ME AND LEAD ME TO THE RIGHT PEOPLE. THANK YOU, RALPH YUMA, ARIZONA, USA

  26. to create water security round the year, we need to save rainwater during monsoon, to be available for future use after rains & this can be accomplished only by Underground Rainwater harvesting .
    for details one can visit http://www.varshajal.com

  27. […] another study, 1200 experts in 80 countries offered their solutions to water scarcity (read here).  Predictably, many focused on regulations, mitigation of climate change, and population control, […]

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