For World Water Day 2013, Skoll World Forum and Circle of Blue asked four of the world’s leading water experts to weigh in. Here is what Michel Jarraud, chair of UN-Water and Secretary-General of the World Meteorological Organization, had to say about the potential for cooperation around water.
Water is a shared resource. Our planet counts nearly 276 transboundary basins and as many transboundary aquifers. Globally, 148 countries share at least one basin with one or several countries. Access to clean water and sanitation was declared a human right in July 2010. Indeed life — as well as the environment and most human activities — depend on the availability of adequate quantities of water of an acceptable quality. To ensure a future where we all have access to water and sanitation, it is essential that we cooperate.
By declaring 2013 the International Year of Water Cooperation, the United Nations General Assembly recognizes the broad benefits of cooperation in the water domain for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other internationally agreed goals and calls Members States and all concerned stakeholders to strengthen dialogue and partnerships. Every year, we withdraw 3.8 trillion cubic meters (1 quadrillion gallons) of fresh water from the environment to satisfy our domestic needs, produce food and energy, and manufacture all sorts of goods. In the last decades, competition for water has increased sharply as demands to satisfy the various needs of a growing population have swollen, while the resource appears to be scarcer in many areas.
If nothing changes, we will need several planets to sustain a global population achieving the current lifestyle of the average European or North American.
We have heard of imminent “water wars” and risks of conflicts over scarce freshwater resources. However, water has, so far, rarely been at the roots of the tensions, but can indeed be an exacerbating factor where social and political tensions already exist.
Historically, transboundary cooperation has been difficult, but the hundreds of treaties signed between riparian states and the institutions created to manage and use transboundary waters in an equitable and sustainable manner around the world show that sharing a resource as precious as water can be a catalyst for cooperation rather than conflicts. Sharing waters is actually often a driver for international cooperation and regional integration. Indeed cooperation in the realm of water brings very concrete social, economical, and political benefits to countries and their populations, including regional peace and security.
The Roots of Competition and Possible Tensions Over Fresh Water
Population growth, especially in cities, associated with changing consumption patterns are driving water demand up. Our lifestyles are more water hungry. With the world population expected to grow from a little over 7 billion today to 8 billion by 2025, water withdrawals are predicted to increase by half in developing countries and by 18 percent in developed countries. Water for food production and irrigation constitutes one of the greatest pressures on freshwater resources.
But in many areas of the world, water withdrawals are already exceeding the recharge capacity of the environment, and water availability is decreasing.
About 66 percent of Africa is arid or semi-arid, and more than 300 million of the 800 million people in sub-Saharan Africa live in a water-scarce environment. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the incidence of droughts is expected to increase as a result of human-induced climate change and decreasing trends in precipitation in some areas, and water stress is likely to increase in central and southern Europe.
By the 2070s, the number of people affected is expected to rise from 28 million to 44 million.
Pollution also puts the resource at risk and reduces its availability for consumption. Up to 90 percent of wastewater in developing countries flows untreated into the environment, threatening health, food security, and access to safe drinking and bathing water.
Rising levels of scarcity due to a number of demographic, economic, and social factors — as well as climate changes — can exacerbate tensions as the interests of farmers, domestic users, hydropower generators, recreational users, and ecosystems are often at odds. International boundaries make the situation even more complex.
A Catalyst for Cooperation
However, the mutual benefits brought by cooperation constitute a strong driver. Gains can include the costs averted by reducing tensions and disputes between neighbors. Strained relations linked to water management can indeed impact trade, transport, labor markets, and telecommunications.
A new analytical publication on water security produced by UN-Water and released on the occasion of World Water Day on March 22, 2013, underlines that “numerous examples from across the globe demonstrate that shared waters provide opportunities for cooperation across nations and support political dialogue on broader issues such as regional economic integration, environmental conservation, and sustainable development.”
Cooperation in the Future Development Framework
The Rio+20 outcome document identifies water as a key area for achieving sustainable development. Taking place at a moment when the discussions on the Post-2015 development framework and the formulation of Sustainable Development Goals are advancing fast, World Water Day and, more generally, the International Year of Water Cooperation, give us the opportunity to reflect on the benefits of cooperation and promote increased cooperation at all levels as a way to achieve sustainable development.
Originally published by Forbes on March 22, 2013 for World Water Day 2013. This series of articles, a partnership between Skoll World Forum and Circle of Blue, asked four of the world’s leading experts and innovators working on issues of water scarcity, security, and cooperation to weigh in to offer solutions and help better the understanding of key challenges and opportunities moving forward. This debate will also inform an upcoming session at this year’s Skoll World Forum in Oxford.
Read the other three articles in this series here:
- Sylvia Lee, leader of the water program at Skoll Global Threats Fund: Water as a Catalyst for Peace
- Ned Breslin, CEO of Water For People: An Inside Look at Water for People’s ‘Everyone Forever’ Initiative
- J. Carl Ganter, director and co-founder of Circle of Blue: The Biggest Story of Our Lifetime Is Water